Faizal Kamarol Zaman

Faizal Kamarol Zaman


I have a background in Medicine where I underwent my pre-clinical studies at University of St Andrews. I, then, continued with my clinical training at The University of Manchester before qualified as a medical doctor in 2011. I worked as a junior doctor in Malaysia for a short while before pursuing a Masters degree in Biomedical Engineering at the University of Surrey in 2014. I graduated with a Distinction and presented my Masters’ dissertation on biomechanics at the Healthcare Technologies Student and Early Career Awards 2016 organised by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE).

Research interests

There are several articulating spinal disc implants that are commercially available, mostly metal-on-polymer, with different biomechanical properties. These implants are used in cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) where it is indicated as an alternative surgical intervention to fusion for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy. The CTDR also has been shown to be more advantageous in averting the unwanted side-effects such as heterotopic ossification and adjacent segment degeneration. Like its predecessors in joint replacement, these devices are not immune to biotribological wear that commonly seen in many orthopaedic implants, with abrasion and adhesion being the most common wear mechanisms occurring. Wear testing protocol intended for the spinal intervertebral disc implant published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been widely accepted by many biotribologists owing to its composite, multidirectional motions. The composite motions of the protocol assimilate the cross-shear effect into the simulation – a better reflection to physiological wear compared to the standard issued by ASTM International. Nonetheless, the ISO protocols come short in representing the functional loading and angular displacement of the cervical spine where it has a central tendency within the motion spectrum and discounting the extreme ends during the adverse movements of the neck.

A detailed cervical vertebra biomechanical rigid-body analysis is necessary in order to ascertain the loads and angular motion of the functional spinal unit during activities of daily living, which presently is a gap in this field of research. The enquiry into this aspect is what motivated me to carry out this research project where the information obtained would be a valuable input in refining the ISO18192 wear testing protocol for cervical intervertebral prostheses.


  • MSc Biomedical Engineering, University of Surrey
  • MBChB, The University of Manchester
  • BSc (Hons) Medicine, University of St Andrews

Research groups and institutes

  • Institute of Functional Surfaces